DisinfoDB (“Disinformation DataBase” or DDB for short) provides accessible summaries of tactics used in the spread of disinformation. DDB collates and creates reporting on factors contributing to Information Disorder, then categorises and adds them to the ever-growing archive of disinformation data.
This data enables us to spot patterns in how personas differently distribute disinformation, and helps us predict how they might behave in the future, meaning people can use DisinfoDB to learn about methods used to manipulate them and reduce their effectiveness.
That’s a big claim! Let’s see why I think it’s true:
The Disinformation Cycle
A disinformation campaign follows these steps, usually one after the other:
You can read more about it here, but the most important thing to keep in mind right now is what happens during the calibrate stage; at the end of a campaign disinformers will review and update their methods, depending on resistance received. Account banned on social media? They’ll need to make a fresh one. Fact-checkers debunked their claims? They’ll need to spin new narrative threads.
When we do stuff that makes spreading disinformation harder, we increase the amount of time needed to spend calibrating. Knowing this we can try to optimise our efforts so that disinformers need to spend as much time as possible reworking their methods, giving them less time to spend disinforming. But how do we know what things are hardest for them to recalibrate?
The Pyramid of Pain
We can learn from our friends in the Cybersecurity field! Focusing mitigation efforts on stuff harder to recalibrate is already a well established practice there. To tell how difficult something is to recalibrate, they refer to the Pyramid of Pain;
Basically, at the top of the pyramid we have TTPs (Techniques, Tactics and Procedures) which are, as you can see, Tough! to recalibrate. The lower you get the more Trivial calibration is. For example, sometimes hackers try to trick people into downloading malware via phishing emails (this is a TTP). We could tell our computer not to open files we know are malware (by blocking their Hash Values), but it’s Trivial for hackers to change those and do the same attack again. Or, we could help users spot phishing attacks so that they don’t download malicious files in the first place; the hacker would need to figure out a whole new way to get onto victims’ computers. And that’s Tough!
I’ll be honest, at this point I don’t know if there is a direct equivalent in of the Pyramid in Disinformation. Pyramids might not even be the right structure; maybe we need a Catacomb or a Mausoleum. But the logic of TTPs being harder to change than other things makes sense to me (we’ll see if we can support that claim as time goes on). In the meantime, here’s a rough draft of how The Disinformation Pyramid of Pain might look:
For simplicity I’m changing TTPs to just “Tactics”, and putting “Narratives” at the bottom (although I’m sure we may excavate even trivial-er parts of the Pyramid as we keep digging). In the real Pyramid there would probably be things in the middle of the structure too. As DisinfoDB continues to expand we can come back to this concept and see if we can make out the finer details.
To support this Pyramid’s existence we can look at a Disinformation version of the scenario provided earlier where Tactics are Very Hard to recalibrate, but Narratives are Trivial. Let’s say someone was disinforming you about the severity of Coronavirus; they may deliberately use complicated numerical data to make their statements appear authentic, knowing that the average reader wouldn’t deconstruct the numbers behind the argument. A fact checker may later disprove the individual narrative, but this doesn’t stop the disinformer creating new stories manipulating different data; the strategy of misrepresenting statistics to support an inauthentic argument can be re-used in multiple disinformation attempts.
If we improved the data literacy of targeted demographics this would reduce the probability that narratives employing data manipulation would succeed in the future. The disinformer would need to come up with new ways to mislead, which is a lot harder to do than making new stories with the same old methods. More generally if we mitigated strategies used in attacks instead of individual narratives we may be better able to stop the spread of information disorder, as disinformers need to spend more time calibrating and less time producing or amplifying.
Prebunking and Inoculation Theory
One way we can improve resistance to Narratives is by exposing them to weaker versions of specific inauthentic arguments – this way people will have already been able to reason out why dangerous narratives are incorrect, even when presented by skilled manipulators in the wild. This is called Inoculation Theory (but is more pithily referred to as Prebunking). Recognising that inauthentic narratives regularly change, the free online game Bad News uses the same prebunking method to expose players to tactics used in the spread of disinformation, improving resilience when seen in the wild. The Bad News team have developed several different games with the same core design philosophy of prebunking against disinformation tactics.
I think this is a fantastic strategy, but making a full game is pretty resource intensive, and I don’t think that it’s optimal to wait for a full development cycle to complete before distributing much needed inoculations. You might have noticed that society is running RAMPANT with nonsense right now and we should probably be fairly quick with sorting it.
A Taxonomy of Tactics
We’ve put forward the idea that it’s more difficult to recalibrate tactics than it is other aspects of a disinformation campaign. Some tactic prophylactics have already been developed, showing it is possible to successfully invent interventions. But I think there’s a gap for those of us who don’t want to wait for the good news that Bad News has finished another game to fight “fake news”, a gap in which we can again learn from our friends in Cybersecurity. Organisations’ security teams don’t have to sit around waiting for one company to create protections against tactics; they can refer to MITRE ATT&CK to learn about methods used by hackers, and improve defences themselves. MITRE’s tactic profiles provide summaries of techniques, examples of their use in the real world, and recommendations on how to detect and protect against them.
Let’s go back to the example of Phishing as a tactic used by hackers. Anybody can learn from its’ dedicated MITRE ATT&CK profile that one of the ways to reduce the probability that hackers hook a victim is to block all emails with suspicious filetypes (so malware can’t make its way into the system). This basic advice benefits teams by enabling them to improve defences against hard-to-recalibrate tactics without needing to invest money and time into full-scale mitigations.
Profiles of Tactics used in disinformation campaigns could provide similar value for those of us looking to protect ourselves and each other from malicious outside influence; this is the gap I want DisinfoDB to fill. In the niche of “people who want to provide defence against disinformation tactics over individual narratives” Bad News looks to create a full ‘vaccine’ for inoculation against techniques, and DisinfoDB has rough-and-ready advice on how to avoid infection while these are still in development. Remember the part of Covid where nobody was vaccinated, but we still knew to stand six feet apart and wear a mask? That’s the kind of information DDB can provide.
So, what is DisinfoDB?
DisinfoDB reviews reporting on Information Disorder and distills information on Tactics into profiles. These profiles provide accessible summaries of the Tactics, link to further reading, and provide other supporting content. One example looks at how well intentioned debunking can boost disinformation’s audience.
While I’d like to match MITRE ATT&CK’s mitigation and detection recommendations, this is not a feasible goal for the one person team (me, hello!) working on DDB today (especially in a field far less developed than Cybersecurity). I currently handle this by acknowledging within profiles when there is content yet to be added. For a Tactic profile to exist there should be a minimum of a Summary and Further Reading, to help provide groundwork for users’ own self-education journey.
DisinfoDB started as a place where I could collate articles I’d read about disinformation and tagging them based on the narrative and the type of content shared. While DDB’s mission has evolved these article archives still provide value in collating real-world examples of tactics. There are lots of different organisations and sources reporting on disinformation, so it’s useful to have them collated in one centralised location.
Users can browse archived articles outside of profiles with freetext filters allowing them to find reporting on topics matching their interest. For example, this table is pre-filtered to show all articles in the Database that referenced information disorder amplified by Public Figures / Celebrities (a complete unfiltered collection of articles can be found here):
|Link||Article Title||Source||Content Context||Content Type||Disinformation Type||Dissemination Platform||Amplification Method||Geography||Article Publish Date||Article Author||Aggressor||Influence Cycle Stage||Type|
|How anti-vaxxers get around Instagram’s new hashtag controls||Coda Story||Anti-Vaccine||Hashtag Hijacking, Obfuscated Post Content||2020-06-12||Isobel Cockerell, Sofiya Voznaya||Calibrate: Attack, Calibrate: Defend||Article|
|As wildfires rage, false antifa rumors spur pleas from police||NBC News||2020 California Wildfires, Antifa, QAnon, Black Lives Matter, Proud Boys||Article, Text Post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter||Facebook Groups, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-09-11||Brandy Zadrozny, Ben Collins||Produce: Attack, Publish: Attack, Amplify: Attack, Amplify: Defend||Article|
|Reporting for Duty: How A Network of Pakistan-Based Accounts Leveraged Mass Reporting to Silence Critics||Stanford University||Human Rights Activists, Islam, Pakistan, Marketing, Anti-Semitism, Government, Military, Coronavirus||Inauthentic Reporting, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Social Media Groups / Pages, Hashtag, Image, Video, Meme||Facebook, Instagram, YouTube||Inauthentic Post Amplification, Brigading, Facebook Groups||Pakistan, India||2020-09-01||Shelby Grossman, Ross Ewald, Jennifer John, Asfandyar Mir, Kim Ngo, Natasha Patel, David Thiel||Pakistan||Position: Attack, Produce: Attack, Amplify: Attack||Journal Article|
|How conspiracy theories surged after the Beirut explosion||Coda Story||2020 Beirut Explosion||Text post, Video||Misleading Content||Mainstream Media Reporting, Twitter, WhatsApp||Government Figure, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-08-06||Emily Lewis||Amplify: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|Facebook Removes Troll Farm Pretending to Be African-Americans in Support of Trump||NBC News||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, 2020 US Election, QAnon, Trump||Comments / Replies, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Social Media Groups / Pages, Meme, Text post||Facebook, Instagram||Inauthentic Social Media Account||United States of America||2020-08-06||Ben Collins, Kevin Collier||Amplify: Attack, Calibrate: Defend, Position: Defend||Article|
|Google queries in Africa reveal how coronavirus disinformation is evolving||Coda Story||Coronavirus||2020-08-05||Rachel Sherman||Amplify: Defend||Article|
|More celebrities join the growing conspiracy theory movement||Coda Story||Anti-Vaccine, Anti-Semitism, Bill Gates, Coronavirus, QAnon||Text post, Video||Instagram, Twitter||2020-07-29||Isobel Cockerell||Amplify: Attack||Article|
|How K-pop information warfare outmaneuvered the far right||Coda Story||Hashtag Hijacking||2020-07-24||Chaewon Chung, Isobel Cockerell, Rachel Sherman||K-pop fans||Amplify: Defend||Article|
|Duterte’s troll armies drown out Covid-19 dissent in the Philippines||Coda Story||Coronavirus||Comments / Replies, Hashtag, Imposter Social Media Accounts, Text post||Facebook, Twitter||Bot Account, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account||Phillipines||2020-07-21||Lynzy Billing, Sofiya Voznaya||Amplify: Attack||Article|
|The Conspiracy Singularity Has Arrived||Vice News||Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, George Floyd Killing, Government, QAnon||2020-07-17||Anna Merlan||Article|
|In Kazakhstan, coronavirus conspiracies are the latest celebrity craze||Coda Story||Coronavirus||Misleading Statistics, Text post||Misleading Content||Government Website, Instagram, Telegram, WhatsApp||Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||Khazakhstan||2020-07-17||Katiya Patin||Amplify: Attack, Calibrate: Defend, Publish: Attack, Research: Defend||Article|
|Doctor by day, anti-disinfo warrior by night: fighting Yemen’s Covid-19 crisis||Coda Story||Coronavirus||Article, Inauthentic Fake News Accusation, Misleading Statistics, Oral Statement||False Context||Facebook, Government Figure, State Media||Yemen||2020-07-10||Casey Coombs||Position: Defend, Produce: Defend, Research: Defend||Article|
|Tensions skyrocket in Serbia as the president casts street protestors as violent conspiracists||Coda Story||Anti-Government Protests, Government||Inauthentic Fake News Accusation||Government Figure, Mainstream Media Reporting||Government Figure, Mainstream Media||Serbia||2020-07-09||Katiya Patin||Amplify: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|Right-Wing Media Outlets Duped by a Middle East Propaganda Campaign||The Daily Beast||Middle East, State funded media||Text post||Imposter Content||Alternative Media, LinkedIn, Twitter||Inauthentic News Site, Inauthentic Persona, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account, Public Figure / Celebrity||Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Quatar, Turkey, United Arab Emirates||2020-07-07||Adam Rawnsley||Article|
|South Korean police don’t use purple dye cannons on protesters||Full Fact||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests||Image, Text post||Fabricated Content||United Kingdom||2020-06-26||Rachael Krishna||Fact Check|
|Facebook post about Italy, coronavirus and 5G is almost all false||Full Fact||5G, Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, Healthcare||Article, Text post||Fabricated Content||Alternative Media, Facebook, Personal Website||"Please Share" Call to Action||2020-06-26||Grace Rahman||Fact Check|
|Alcohol-based hand sanitiser cannot catch fire, without a spark, just because it's in a hot car||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Healthcare||Text post||Misleading Content||Facebook, Government Figure||United Kingdom||2020-06-24||Rachael Krishna||Fact Check|
|Footballers aren’t banned from wearing the poppy||Full Fact||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, Political Correctness||Screenshot, Text post||False Context||"Please Share" Call to Action||United Kingdom||2020-06-24||Abbas Panjwani||Fact Check|
|Coronavirus: How a false rumour led to hate online||BBC News, BBC Reality Check||Bill Gates, Coronavirus, Healthcare||Inauthentic Documents, Inauthentic Website, Text post, Video||Imposter Content, Misleading Content||Facebook, Inauthentic Website, Twitter, YouTube||Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-06-19||Jack Goodman||Jordan Sather||Article|
|Sioux Falls Chamber apologizes for saying protest buses came to city from Fargo||INFORUM||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests||Text post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter||Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-06-07||Barry Amundson||Article|
|White nationalist group posing as antifa called for violence on Twitter||NBC News||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, Antifa, George Floyd Killing||Hashtag, Manipulated Image, Screenshot, Text post||Fabricated Content||Compromised Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Text Message, Twitter||Bot Account, Compromised Social Media Account, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-06-02||Ben Collins, Brandy Zadrozny, Emmanuelle Saliba||Identity Evropa||Article|
|George Floyd’s ‘Fake’ Death||New York Times||George Floyd Killing||Text post, Video||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter, YouTube||Facebook Groups, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-06-01||Davey Alba||JonXArmy, QAnon||Article|
|The George Soros Conspiracy||New York Times||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, George Floyd Killing, George Soros||Text post, Video||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter, YouTube||Government Figure||2020-06-01||Davey Alba||Article|
|Antifa Misinformation-||New York Times||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, Antifa||Inauthentic Documents, Text post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Mainstream Media Reporting, Twitter||Government Figure, Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-06-01||Davey Alba||Article|
|Like a virus; The coordinated spread of coronavirus disinformation||Centre for Responsible Technology, The Australia Institute||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare, Marketing, QAnon||Article, Image, Manipulated Image, Meme, Text post||Bot Account, Compromised Social Media Account, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account||Istanbul, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Turkey, United States of America||2020-05-31||Axel Bruns, Guangnan Zhu, Rod Campbell, Timothy Graham||Pro-Trump, QAnon, Republican||Journal Article|
|How coronavirus 'changes the game' for the anti-vaccination movement||ABC News||5G, Anti-Vaccine, Bill Gates, Coronavirus, Healthcare||Meme, Retweets/Likes, Text post, Video||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Instagram, Mainstream Media Reporting, TikTok, YouTube||Facebook Groups, Hashtag Hijacking, Public Figure / Celebrity||Australia||2020-05-30||Ariel Bogle, Michael Workman, Stephen Hutcheon||Article|
|Troll farms from North Macedonia and the Philippines pushed coronavirus disinformation on Facebook||NBC News||5G, Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Video||Fabricated Content||Alternative Media, Facebook||Facebook Groups, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account||2020-05-29||Ben Collins, Brandy Zadrozny||Amazing Cures, Brighteon, Content farm, GMO Dangers, Mike Adams, Natural News, NewsTarget, North Macedonia, Philippines, The Health Ranger||Article|
|Revealed: US-funded website spreading COVID misinformation in Armenia||openDemocracy||Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, Healthcare||Article||Fabricated Content||Alternative Media||Armenia||2020-05-28||Tatev Hovhannisyan||Article|
|The online competition between pro- and anti-vaccination views||Nature Research Journal||Anti-Vaccine||Facebook Groups||2020-05-13||Minzhang Zheng, Neil Johnson, Nicholas Gabriel, Nicholas Johnson Restrepo, Nicolas Velásquez, Pedro Manrique, Rhys Leahy, Sara El Oud, Stefan Wuchty, Yonatan Lupu||Journal Article|
|Viral Facebook post is wrong on deaths in first three months of 2020||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Healthcare||Screenshot, Text post||Manipulated Content||United Kingdom||2020-05-12||Leo Benedictus||Fact Check|
|Two police forces did not use the same photo to illustrate two different lockdown crimes||Full Fact||Emergency Services||Image, Manipulated Image, Screenshot, Text post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter||United Kingdom||2020-05-11||Rachael Krishna||Fact Check|
|A scientific review did not conclude that there are no cases of children transmitting the new coronavirus||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Article||False Connection||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media||United Kingdom||2020-05-07||Kate Lewis||Fact Check|
|Health Secretary uses Facebook poll to estimate coronavirus tracking app take-up||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Article, Oral Statement||Misleading Content||Government Website, Oral Statement||Government Figure||United Kingdom||2020-05-07||Abbas Panjwani||Fact Check|
|The Control of Diseases Act was not changed in April to say you can be forcibly vaccinated||Full Fact||Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus||Text post, Video||False Connection||Facebook, Twitter, YouTube||Facebook Groups, Public Figure / Celebrity||United Kingdom||2020-05-07||Grace Rahman||Fact Check|
|This post about Covid-19 and blood clotting conditions contains inaccuracies||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Healthcare||Text post||Misleading Content||Facebook, Twitter||United Kingdom||2020-05-07||Kate Lewis||Fact Check|
|There’s no evidence immigrants caused a PPE shipment to be destroyed at Dover||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Immigration||Image, Text post||Fabricated Content||United Kingdom||2020-05-05||Joseph O'Leary||Fact Check|
|It's incorrect to say flu vaccines don't work||Full Fact||Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, Healthcare||Image, Text post||Misleading Content||2020-05-05||Kate Lewis||Fact Check|
|A Nobel Prize-winning immunologist has not said coronavirus is manmade, as claimed||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Healthcare||Image, Screenshot, Text post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter||Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-04-30||Abbas Panjwani||Fact Check|
|The Maytrix Group receives no money from Captain Tom’s fundraiser||Full Fact||Charity||Image, Screenshot, Text post||False Context||United Kingdom||2020-04-30||Claire Milne||Fact Check|
|Hungary’s new coronavirus legislation could have journalists jailed||Coda Story||Disinformation||Hungary||2020-04-30||Matej Voda||Own Government||Calibrate: Attack, Position: Attack||Article|
|An image of a dog vaccine for a different coronavirus has gone viral||Full Fact||Coronavirus||Image, Screenshot||False Connection||2020-04-23||Grace Rahman||Fact Check|
|Uncovering Operation NEPTUN, the Cold War’s Most Daring Disinformation Campaign||WIRED||Cold War, Operation NEPTUN||Inauthentic Documents||False Context||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media||Germany||2020-04-15||Thomas Rid||Article|
|If you need the police but can’t talk, dial 999 from a mobile, then 55 when prompted and don’t hang up||Full Fact||Emergency Services, Feminism||Text post||Manipulated Content||Government Figure, Legitimate Business / Charity Organisation, Public Figure / Celebrity||United Kingdom||2020-04-14||Claire Milne, Grace Rahman||Fact Check|
|Meet the celebrities pushing 5G coronavirus conspiracies to millions of fans||Coda Story||5G, Coronavirus||Comments / Replies, Text post, Video||False Context||Instagram, Twitter||Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-04-14||Ashley Jung, Isobel Cockerell||Amplify: Attack||Article|
|This viral voice message about ambulances shared on WhatsApp is inaccurate||Full Fact||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Voice Message||Fabricated Content||Text Message, WhatsApp||United Kingdom||2020-04-08||Claire Milne||Fact Check|
|Blocking information on COVID-19 can fuel the spread of misinformation||Nature Research Journal||Coronavirus||Fabricated Content||Twitter, Government Figure||Inauthentic Social Media Account||United States of America, Iran, Russia||2020-03-30||Heidi Larson||Amplify: Attack, Amplify: Defend||Journal Article|
|Disinformation about Qatar surges in wake of COVID-19||Coda Story||Coronavirus||Hashtag||Bot Account||Quatar||2020-03-23||Burhanw Wazir||Amplify: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|With help from American activists, Ukrainian women are being misled about abortion||openDemocracy||Abortion||Inauthentic Website||Imposter Content||Inauthentic Website||Ukraine||2020-03-18||Tetiana Kozak||Article|
|False coronavirus rumors surge in 'hidden viral' text messages||NBC News||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Text post||Fabricated Content||Text Message, WhatsApp||"Please Share" Call to Action||United States of America||2020-03-16||Ben Collins||Article|
|Inside Italian public hospitals, I saw how a US-linked anti-abortion network is ‘humiliating’ women||openDemocracy||Abortion||Inauthentic Advertisement||Misleading Content||Inauthentic Advertisement, Poster||Italy||2020-03-09||Francesca Visser||Heartbeat International, Movimento per la Vita||Article|
|This little girl has not vanished from your local area-||Full Fact||Missing Persons||Inauthentic Website, Text post||Fabricated Content||United Kingdom||2020-03-02||Rachael Krishna||Fact Check|
|How fake videos unravelled Pakistan’s war on polio||First Draft||Anti-Vaccine, Government, Healthcare||Video||False Context||Facebook, Twitter||Government Figure||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Peshawar||2020-02-20||Lydia Morrish||Article|
|First Draft case study: Exploring the controversy around Dengvaxia and vaccine misinformation in the Philippines||First Draft||Anti-Vaccine, Government, Healthcare||Image, Meme, Screenshot, Text post, Video||Fabricated Content, False Connection, Misleading Content||Alternative Media, Facebook, Instagram, Mainstream Media Reporting, Twitter||Facebook Groups, Mainstream Media||Phillipines||2020-02-20||Jacquelyn Mason, Rory Smith||Article|
|Revealed: US-linked anti-abortion centres ‘lie’ and ‘scare women’ across Latin America||openDemocracy||Abortion||Inauthentic Website||Imposter Content||Inauthentic Website||Latin America, Mexico||2020-02-12||Isabella Cota||Article|
|Exclusive: Trump-linked religious ‘extremists’ target women with disinformation worldwide||openDemocracy||Abortion||Article, Inauthentic Website||Fabricated Content, Imposter Content||In-person, Inauthentic Services, Inauthentic Website||Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Italy, Latin America, Mexico, Spain, Uganda||2020-02-10||Claire Provost, Nandini Archer||Heartbeat International, Human Life International||Article|
|Facebook says a pro-Trump media outlet used artificial intelligence to create fake people and push conspiracies||NBC News||Trump||Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Social Media Groups / Pages||Inauthentic Social Media Account, Online Advertisements, Public Figure / Celebrity||2019-12-20||Ben Collins||Epoch Times||Calibrate: Defend, Position: Defend||Article|
|THE WAR ON PINEAPPLE: Understanding Foreign Interference in 5 Steps||Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security||Bot Account, Inauthentic Social Media Account, Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||2019-07-01||Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security||Amplify: Attack, Amplify: Defend, Position: Attack, Produce: Attack, Publish: Attack, Publish: Defend, Research: Attack||Infographic|
|It’s not true that dialling 55 in a silent 999 call lets the police track your location||Full Fact||Emergency Services||Image||Manipulated Content||"Please Share" Call to Action||United Kingdom||2019-01-23||Grace Rahman||Fact Check|
|OF VIRALITY AND VIRUSES: THE ANTI-VACCINE MOVEMENT AND SOCIAL MEDIA||Nautilus Institite||Anti-Vaccine, September 11 Attacks, Personal Attack||Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Google Search||Online Advertisements, Cross Platform Sharing, Hashtag Hijacking, Public Figure / Celebrity, Mainstream Media, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Brigading, Inauthentic Social Media Account, Bot Account||United States of America||2018-11-08||Renée Diresta||Amplify: Attack||Journal Article|
|SOCIAL MEDIA BOTS OVERVIEW||Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security||Bot Account||2018-05-01||Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security||Amplify: Attack, Amplify: Defend, Publish: Attack, Publish: Defend||Infographic|
|Why we need to understand misinformation through visuals||First Draft||Image||Fabricated Content||Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||United Kingdom||2017-10-17||Hannah Guy||Article|
|Has change really come? Misleading graphs and how to spot them||Rappler||Government||Oral Statement, Text post||Misleading Content||Government Figure, Government Website, Oral Statement||Government Figure||Phillipines||2017-08-05||JC Punongbayan||Article|
|Ferial Haffajee: The Gupta Fake News Factory And Me||HUFFPOST||Feminism, Mainstream Media, Personal Attack||Image, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Manipulated Image, Meme, Text post||Fabricated Content, Satire or Parody||Bot Account, Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account||2017-08-02||Ferial Haffajee, Marc Davies||Article|
|Kenya election: Fake CNN and BBC news reports circulate||BBC News||Elections, Government||Video||Fabricated Content, Imposter Content||Twitter, WhatsApp||Kenya||2017-07-29||Unattributed||Article|
|Did Emmanuel Macron open an offshore account ?||CrossCheck, First Draft||Elections, Government||Inauthentic Documents, Inauthentic Website, Screenshot||Fabricated Content||*chan, Alternative Media, Forum Post, Government Figure, Mainstream Media Reporting||Government Figure, Mainstream Media||France||2017-05-05||Unattributed||Fact Check|
|Did London Muslims “celebrate” a terrorist attack on the Champs-Elysees?||CrossCheck, First Draft||Text post, Video||Manipulated Content||Public Figure / Celebrity||France, United Kingdom||2017-04-22||Unattributed||Fact Check|
|How Russia Is Using LinkedIn as a Tool of War Against Its U.S. Enemies||Newsweek||Article, Comments / Replies, Meme||2017-03-08||Jeff Stein||Article|
|Was Macron’s campaign for the French presidency financed by Saudi Arabia?||CrossCheck, First Draft||Elections, Government||Inauthentic Website, Screenshot, Text post||Fabricated Content||Government Figure, Inauthentic Website, Mainstream Media Reporting, Twitter||Government Figure, Mainstream Media||France||2017-03-02||Unattributed||Fact Check|
|Meet the Macedonian Teens Who Mastered Fake News and Corrupted the US Election||WIRED||Clinton, Elections, Government, Healthcare, Trump||Article, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Website, Text post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Website, Personal Website||Facebook Groups||United States of America||2017-02-15||Samanth Subramanian||Content farm, North Macedonia, Veles||Article|
|Trump Trolls Tell Hillary Clinton Supporters They Can Vote Via Text||Forbes||Elections, Government||Image, Inauthentic Advertisement, Text post||Fabricated Content, Satire or Parody||Facebook, Twitter||Inauthentic Post Amplification||United States of America||2016-11-03||Fruzsina Eordogh||Article|
|What was fake on the Internet this election: #DraftOurDaughters, Trump’s tax returns||The Washington Post||Clinton, Elections, Immigration, Trump||Article, Hashtag, Image, Manipulated Image, Text post||Fabricated Content, False Connection, Manipulated Content, Satire or Parody||Facebook, Twitter||Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Social Media Account||United States of America||2016-10-31||Abby Ohlheiser||Article|
|Former 'Kremlin Troll' Awarded $0.01 in Victory Over 'Propaganda Factory'||Vice News||Government, Pro-Government||Comments / Replies||Mainstream Media Websites: Comments / Replies||Inauthentic Social Media Account||2015-08-18||Unattributed||Agency for Internet Studies, Russia||Amplify: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|Haunting 'Nepal quake victims' photo from Vietnam||BBC News||Disaster recovery, Nepal Earthquake||Image, Text post||False Context||Facebook, Twitter||2015-05-04||Nga Pham||Article|
|Surge of Virus Misinformation Stumps Facebook and Twitter||New York Times||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Comments / Replies, Inauthentic Documents, Inauthentic Website, Screenshot, Text post, Video||Imposter Content, Manipulated Content||Facebook, Twitter, YouTube||Facebook Groups||2020-03-08||Sheera Frenkel, Davey Alba, Raymond Zhong||Amplify: Attack, Amplify: Defend||Article|
|QAnon: What is it and where did it come from?||BBC News, BBC Reality Check||Clinton, QAnon, Trump||Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Reddit||Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-08-20||Mike Wendling||Article|
|Man pleads guilty to terrorism after Hoover Dam barricade||AP News||QAnon||2020-02-12||Ariz Kingman||Article|
|QAnon conspiracy theory on James Comey shuts school festival||BBC News||QAnon||Comments / Replies, Manipulated Image, Text post||Manipulated Content||2019-05-10||Unattributed||Article|
|Eric Trump Promotes QAnon Conspiracy On Instagram While Plugging Tulsa Rally||Forbes||QAnon||Image, Text post||Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-06-20||Jack Brewster||Amplify: Attack||Article|
|QAnon: Twitter bans accounts linked to conspiracy theory||BBC News||QAnon||2020-07-22||Unattributed||Calibrate: Defend, Position: Defend||Article|
|Here are the QAnon supporters running for Congress in 2020||Media Matters||Elections, Government, QAnon||Comments / Replies, Hashtag, Image, Retweets/Likes, Text post, Video||Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube||Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-07-01||Alex Kaplan||Amplify: Attack, Position: Attack||Article|
|The definitive guide to Fox News' vaccine conspiracy theories||Media Matters||Bill Gates, Coronavirus, Anti-Vaccine||Oral Statement, Video||Facebook, Mainstream Media Reporting, YouTube||Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-09-14||Madeline Peltz||Fox News||Amplify: Attack, Position: Attack||Article|
|A Sinclair interview of Trump's new COVID-19 adviser was full of misinformation||Media Matters||Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus||Oral Statement, Video||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media||United States of America||2020-09-15||Zachary Pleat||Sinclair Broadcast Group||Position: Attack, Produce: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|Trump amplified a bogus QAnon misinformation campaign against the CDC that is now flooding social media||Media Matters||Coronavirus, QAnon||Hashtag, Image, Meme, Misleading Statistics, Text post||False Context||Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Twitter||Facebook Groups, Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-09-03||Olivia Little, Alex Kaplan||Amplify: Attack||Article|
|How Sinclair Broadcast Group is spreading dangerous coronavirus misinformation to local television news audiences||Media Matters||Coronavirus||Oral Statement, Video||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-07-27||Zachary Pleat||Sinclair Broadcast Group||Amplify: Attack, Position: Attack||Article|
|News outlets give Trump the headlines he wants for vaporware drug executive order||Media Matters||2020 US Election, Government, Healthcare, Trump||Article, Text post||False Connection, Fabricated Content||Mainstream Media Reporting, Twitter||Government Figure, Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-09-14||Matt Gertz||Amplify: Attack, Produce: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|A conspiracy theory about West Coast wildfires is flooding Facebook despite the site’s promises to remove misinformation||Media Matters||2020 California Wildfires, Antifa, QAnon||Hashtag, Image, Imposter Social Media Accounts, Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Screenshot, Text post||Imposter Content, Fabricated Content||Facebook Groups, Coordinated user action||United States of America||2020-09-15||Olivia Little, Alex Kaplan||Amplify: Attack, Position: Attack, Produce: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|Facebook’s big QAnon crackdown might have come too late||The Verge||QAnon||Facebook, Twitter, Reddit||United States of America||2020-06-20||Casey Newton||Calibrate: Defend, Position: Attack, Position: Defend||Article|
|The Boogaloo movement has successfully hijacked social networks to spread||The Verge||Boogaloo Movement||Facebook Groups||2020-06-25||Casey Newton||Calibrate: Defend, Research: Defend||Article|
|The Technology 202: Facebook struggles to keep violent 'boogaloo' content off its platform||The Washington Post||2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, Bill Gates, George Soros, Boogaloo Movement||Facebook Groups, Facebook Algorithm||2020-06-24||Tonya Riley, Cat Zakrzewski||Calibrate: Attack, Calibrate: Defend, Research: Defend||Article|
|A woman inspired by QAnon conspiracy videos was arrested after live-streaming her trip to 'take out' Joe Biden||Insider||2020 US Election, Clinton, Coronavirus, QAnon||United States of America||2020-05-01||Margot Harris||Article|
|A QAnon conspiracy theory about Oprah Winfrey went so viral that it provoked her to respond, showing the scope of coronavirus misinformation||Insider||QAnon||Facebook, Twitter||Cross Platform Sharing, Coordinated user action, Twitter Algorithm||2020-03-18||Kat Tenbarge||Amplify: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|Alt-right conspiracy group Q'Anon won't stop believing in its Trump-related prophecies, even after they fail||Insider||Clinton, George Soros, QAnon||*chan, Alternative Media||Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2018-10-10||Michael Barkun||Research: Defend||Article|
|These influencers and celebrities are spreading debunked coronavirus hoaxes on their massive platforms||Insider||Coronavirus||Screenshot, Text post, Voice Message||Satire or Parody, Fabricated Content||Instagram, Twitter||Please Share Call to Action, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-03-17||Kat Tenbarge||Amplify: Attack||Article|
|QAnon conspiracy theorists are telling people to drink bleach as a cure against the deadly Wuhan coronavirus||Insider||Coronavirus, QAnon, Miracle Mineral Solution||Video||Personal Website, Twitter, YouTube||2020-01-29||Tom Porter||Amplify: Attack, Position: Attack||Article|
|Unlicensed medical 'cures' are flourishing in closed Facebook groups, where cancer treatments — and even surgery — are sold beyond the reach of the law||Insider||Healthcare, MMS||Inauthentic Social Media Accounts||Facebook, Personal Website, YouTube||Facebook Groups||2019-10-18||Tom Porter||Position: Attack, Publish: Attack||Article|
|How conspiracy theorists who claim drinking 'MMS' bleach is a cure for autism reached millions of people on YouTube||Business Insider||Anti-Vaccine, Disinformation, Healthcare, MMS||Video||Facebook, YouTube||Cross Platform Sharing, YouTube Algorithm||2019-05-21||Tom Porter||Amplify: Attack, Calibrate: Defend||Article|
|British man arrested in Uganda after promoting 'MMS' bleach as a cure for HIV and malaria||Business Insider||Healthcare, MMS||YouTube||Uganda||2019-05-23||Tom Porter||Article|
|How three conspiracy theorists took 'Q' and sparked Qanon||NBC News||Disinformation, QAnon||*chan, Facebook, Reddit, YouTube||Cross Platform Sharing||2018-08-14||Ben Collins, Brandy Zadrozny||Position: Attack||Article|
|California Wildfire Suspect Posted About QAnon, Other Conspiracies||HUFFPOST||QAnon, 2018 California Wildfires||United States of America||2018-10-08||Sebastian Murdock||Article|
|Twitter is bringing its ‘read before you retweet’ prompt to all users||The Verge||2020-09-25||James Vincent||Amplify: Defend||Article|
|‘Ghostwriter’ Influence Campaign: REPORT Unknown Actors Leverage Website Compromises and Fabricated Content to Push Narratives Aligned with Russian Security Interests||FireEye||Coronavirus, Military, Nato||Article, Inauthentic Documents, Manipulated Image, Screenshot||Imposter Content, Manipulated Content, Fabricated Content||Alternative Media, Inauthentic Website, Compromised Website||Inauthentic Persona, Compromised Account, Inauthentic Account, Targeted Email||Latvia, Lithuania, Poland||2020-07-29||Unattributed||Ghostwriter||Position: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Vaccine Proponents Receive Death Threats. Again.||Forbes||Anti-Vaccine, Healthcare||United States of America||2019-07-22||Nina Shapiro||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Anti-Vaxxers Brought Their War to Minnesota—Then Came Measles||WIRED||Anti-Vaccine||United States of America||2017-05-07||Megan Molenti||Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|Why Minnesota lost a battle against anti-vaccine campaigners||Vox||Anti-Vaccine, Healthcare||Oral Statement||In-person||United States of America||2017-05-16||Julia Belluz||Research: Aggressor, Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|Anti-vaccine group sues Facebook, claims fact-checking is “censorship”||Ars Technica||Anti-Vaccine, Healthcare||2020-08-18||Kate Cox||Calibrate: Aggressor, Amplify: Defender||Article|
|A call to arms: helping family, friends and communities navigate the COVID-19 infodemic||Nature Research Journal||Coronavirus, Healthcare||2020-07-02||Heidi Larson||Research: Defender||Journal Article|
|Samoa Arrests Anti-Vaccination Activist As Measles Death Toll Rises||NPR||Anti-Vaccine, Healthcare||Samoa||2019-12-06||Merrit Kennedy||Impact: Aggressor, Position: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|Anti-vaccine groups take dangerous online harassment into the real world||NBC News||Anti-Vaccine, Healthcare||Inauthentic Reviews||Fabricated Content||United States of America||2019-12-06||Brandy Zadrozny, Erika Edwards||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|QAnon Key Figure Revealed as Financial Information Security Analyst from New Jersey||Logically||QAnon||*chan, Personal Website||Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-09-10||Unattributed||Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Conspiracy Theorists Without Borders: How QAnon Mutated In Europe||Logically||QAnon, Reichsbürgerbewegung||Meme, Music||Facebook, Telegram, Twitter, WhatsApp, YouTube||Facebook Groups, Public Figure / Celebrity||France, Germany, United States of America||2020-09-24||Kristina Gildejeva||Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Disinformation’s spread: bots, trolls and all of us||Nature Research Journal||2019-07-24||Kate Starbird||Research: Defender, Impact: Defender||Journal Article|
|Twitter is testing how its misinformation labels can be more obvious, direct||Reuters||2020 US Election, Coronavirus||Twitter Algorithm||2020-10-06||Elizabeth Culliford||Amplify: Defender||Article|
|This Analysis Shows How Viral Fake Election News Stories Outperformed Real News On Facebook||Buzzfeed News||Clinton, Trump, 2016 US Election||Article||Satire or Parody, Fabricated Content||Facebook Algorithm||2016-11-16||Craig Silverman||Burrard Street Journal, Conservative State, Ending the Fed||Position: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|YouTube bans QAnon, other conspiracy content that targets individuals||NBC News||QAnon||Video||YouTube||YouTube Algorithm||2020-10-15||Ben Collins, Brandy Zadrozny||Impact: Aggressor, Amplify: Defender||Article|
|The Danger of Overstating the Impact of Information Operations||Lawfare||2020-10-23||Yochai Benkler||Impact: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Article|
|As Local News Dies, a Pay-for-Play Network Rises in Its Place||New York Times||2020 US Election, Elections, Government||Article||Alternative Media||United States of America||2020-10-18||Davey Alba, Jack Nicas||Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor||Article|
|Democrats Are Launching “News” Outlets to Turn Swing-State Voters Against Trump||Vice News||2020 US Election, Elections||Article, Inauthentic Reporting||Alternative Media||United States of America||2019-07-24||David Uberti||Position: Aggressor||Article|
|How a fake persona laid the groundwork for a Hunter Biden conspiracy deluge||NBC News||2020 US Election||Inauthentic Documents||*chan, Alternative Media, Facebook, Personal Website, Reddit, Twitter||Inauthentic Persona, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-10-29||Ben Collins, Brandy Zadrozny||Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|‘#OperationBlockTheBus’: Inside the Pro-Trump FB Group Where Biden Bus Convoy Was Organized||Snopes||2020 US Election, QAnon||Facebook Groups||United States of America||2020-11-02||Unattributed||Impact: Aggressor||Fact Check|
|Winston Churchill waged war on paper over 'fake news' photo caption||The Guardian||Disinformation, Government||Government Figure||United Kingdom||2020-08-09||Jamie Doward||Produce: Aggressor||Article|
|Zoom lied to users about end-to-end encryption for years, FTC says||Ars Technica||Corporate Inauthenticity||Article, Inauthentic Advertisement||Manipulated Content||Company Website||2020-11-09||Jon Brodkin||Publish: Aggressor, Publish: Defender||Article|
|Steve Bannon Caught Running a Network of Misinformation Pages on Facebook||Gizmodo||2020 US Election||Facebook Groups, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-10-11||Whitney Kimball||Position: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Position: Defender||Article|
|Microsoft: ‘please do not blow vape smoke into your Xbox Series X’||The Verge||Products||Video||Manipulated Content||2020-11-11||Chaim Gartenberg||Produce: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Article|
|The different forms of COVID-19 misinformation and their consequences||Harvard Kennedy School||Coronavirus||Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||United States of America||2020-11-16||Adam Enders, Casey Klofstad, Joseph Uscinski, Justin Stoler||Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender, Amplify: Defender||Journal Article|
|Delusional COVID Truthers Try to Invade Hospital Where This Mom Died Too Soon||Daily Beast||Coronavirus||United States of America||2020-11-18||Michael Daly||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|A QAnon Mom Is Accused Of Killing A Man After She Believed He Was Keeping Her Children From Her||Buzzfeed News||QAnon||United States of America||2020-11-18||Tasneem Nashrulla||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: Exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence||Plos One||Climate Crisis||2017-05-05||John Cook, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ullrich Ecker||Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|An AI tool can distinguish between a conspiracy theory and a true conspiracy||Nieman Lab||Pizzagate||*chan, Reddit||2020-11-16||Timothy Tangherlini||Position: Defender, Produce: Defender||Article|
|USING AI IN THE WAR AGAINST FAKE NEWS||Mike Walsh||Pizzagate||2020-08-27||Mike Walsh, Timothy Tangherlini||Produce: Defender, Publish: Defender||Audio / Podcast|
|Dissecting the #PizzaGate Conspiracy Theories||New York Times||Pizzagate||*chan, Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, YouTube||2016-12-10||Cecilia Kang, Gregor Aisch, Jon Huang||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor||Article|
|The disinformation system that Trump unleashed will outlast him. Here’s what reality-based journalists must do about it.||The Washington Post||2020 US Election, Trump||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media||United States of America||2020-11-22||Margaret Sullivan||Publish: Defender, Amplify: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|QAnon's Dominion voter fraud conspiracy theory reaches the president||NBC News||2020 US Election, QAnon||Alternative Media, Twitter||2020-11-13||Ben Collins||Publish: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor||Article|
|How Steve Bannon and a Chinese Billionaire Created a Right-Wing Coronavirus Media Sensation||New York Times||2020 US Election, Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare||Article, Inauthentic Reporting, Video||Alternative Media, Facebook, Instagram, Mainstream Media Reporting, Twitter, YouTube, Parler, Podcast||Inauthentic Post Amplification, Inauthentic Account, Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-11-20||Amy Qin, Danny Hakim, Vivian Wang||Research: Aggressor, Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Position: Defender, Publish: Defender, Amplify: Defender||Article|
|Designed to Deceive: Do These People Look Real to You?||New York Times||Inauthentic Social Media Accounts||Fabricated Content||Inauthentic Persona||2020-11-21||Jeremy White, Kashmir Hill||Position: Defender||Article|
|How fake faces are being weaponized online||CNN||Human Rights Activists, Trump||Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Text post||Fabricated Content||Facebook, Twitter||Inauthentic Account||2020-02-20||Donnie O'Sullivan||Position: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor||Article|
|Neither youth nor maturity makes you immune to misinformation||SunSentinel||2020-11-20||Carol McCarthy||Research: Defender||Article|
|Hundreds dead' because of Covid-19 misinformation||BBC News||Coronavirus, Miracle Mineral Solution||2020-08-12||Alistair Coleman||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Telegram Still Hasn’t Removed an AI Bot That’s Abusing Women||WIRED||Deepfake||Manipulated Content||Telegram||2020-11-18||Matt Burgess||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Publish: Defender||Article|
|How a Terror Group Recruited Budding Neo-Nazis||Vice News||White Supremacy||Telegram, iFunny||2020-11-24||Ben Makuch, Mack Lamoureux, Zachary Kamel||The Base||Research: Aggressor, Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Neo-Nazi Terror Groups Are Using iFunny to Recruit||Vice News||White Supremacy||Meme, Video||iFunny, Telegram||2019-11-14||Mack Lamoureux, Zachary Kamel||Position: Aggressor||Article|
|Quick D: UFO on the Moon||Captain Disillusion||Video||Fabricated Content||2020-01-03||Alan Melikdjanian, Captain Disillusion||Produce: Aggressor||Video|
|Hundreds dead' because of Covid-19 misinformation||BBC News, BBC Reality Check||Coronavirus, Miracle Mineral Solution||2020-08-12||Alistair Coleman||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Coronavirus: The human cost of virus misinformation||BBC News||5G, Coronavirus, White Supremacy||Text post||Facebook, Government Figure, Twitter, YouTube||Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-05-27||Marianna Spring||Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Article|
|How I talk to the victims of conspiracy theories||BBC News||Coronavirus, Government, Healthcare, QAnon||2020-11-01||Marianna Spring||Impact: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Article|
|Quick D: Gyro Drop||Captain Disillusion||Video||Manipulated Content||Twitter, YouTube||2019-10-04||Alan Melikdjanian, Captain Disillusion||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor||Video|
|Mr. Flare Explains: The Virgin Mary||Captain Disillusion||Video||Manipulated Content||2018-12-12||Alan Melikdjanian, Captain Disillusion||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor||Video|
|Marble Sorting Machine DEBUNK||Captain Disillusion||Video||Fabricated Content||Facebook, YouTube||2018-06-28||Alan Melikdjanian, Captain Disillusion||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor||Video|
|The Kraken: What is it and why has Trump's ex-lawyer released it?||BBC News, BBC Reality Check||2020 US Election, QAnon||2020-11-28||Unattributed||Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|Brave New War||The Atlantic||Government, Military||2015-12-29||Peter Pomerantsev||Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|Local Green Group Actually a Front for Far-Right Activists||Vice News||Climate Crisis, White Supremacy||In-person, Instagram, Telegram, Twitter||2020-10-27||https://www.vice.com/en/article/93wkk7/generation-identity-uk-local-matters-far-right||Position: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Vaccine rumours debunked: Microchips, 'altered DNA' and more||BBC Reality Check||Anti-Vaccine, Bill Gates, Coronavirus, Healthcare||Image, Meme, Video||False Connection, Misleading Content, False Context||Facebook, TikTok||2020-12-02||Flora Carmichael, Jack Goodman||Produce: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Article|
|Man who believed virus was hoax loses wife to Covid-19||BBC News||5G, Coronavirus, Government||2020-08-24||Marianna Spring||Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|How Misinformation ‘Superspreaders’ Seed False Election Theories||New York Times||2020 US Election, Elections||Hashtag, Image, Text post, Video||Facebook, Twitter||Facebook Algorithm, Government Figure, Public Figure / Celebrity||2020-11-23||Sheera Frenkel||Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|Facebook Knows That Adding Labels To Trump’s False Claims Does Little To Stop Their Spread||Buzzfeed News||2020 US Election, Elections||Facebook, Twitter||2020-11-16||Craig Silverman, Ryan Mac||Amplify: Defender, Impact: Defender||Article|
|The Making of a YouTube Radical||New York Times||Feminism, White Supremacy, Redpilling||Video||YouTube||YouTube Algorithm||2019-06-08||Kevin Roose||Amplify: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Amplify: Defender||Article|
|From Memes to Infowars: How 75 Fascist Activists Were “Red-Pilled”||Bellingcat||Redpilling, White Supremacy, 2016 US Election||Meme, Text post, Video||*chan, Reddit, YouTube, Discord||Public Figure / Celebrity, YouTube Algorithm||2018-10-11||Robert Evans||Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|How Technology Helped Martin Luther Change Christianity||NPR||White Supremacy, Religion||Article||2016-11-20||Tom Gjelten||Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|1920-21 | Exposing the ‘Protocols’ as a Fraud||New York Times||Anti-Semitism, White Supremacy, 2016 US Election||Article||Imposter Content, Fabricated Content||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media||2016-10-27||David Dunlap||Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|Prebunking interventions based on “inoculation” theory can reduce susceptibility to misinformation across cultures||Harvard Kennedy School||Imposter Content, Fabricated Content||Inauthentic Social Media Accounts, Twitter||Bot Account, Inauthentic Post Amplification||2020-01-01||Jon Roozenbeek, Sander van der Linden, Thomas Nygren||Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Journal Article|
|"The Great Moon Hoax" is published in the "New York Sun"||History.com||Aliens||Satire or Parody||Mainstream Media Reporting||Mainstream Media||United States of America||2009-11-24||Unattributed||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Defender||Article|
|REVISIONS OF REALITY; The Three Warfares—China’s New Way of War||Legatum Foundation||Article, Inauthentic Documents, Oral Statement||Government Figure, Mainstream Media Reporting, State Media||Mainstream Media||China||2015-09-01||Laura Jackson||Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|The QAnon Timeline: Four Years, 5,000 Drops and Countless Failed Prophecies||Bellingcat||2020 US Election, Antifa, Clinton, Coronavirus, Disinformation, Elections, Pizzagate, QAnon, Trump||Text post||Fabricated Content||*chan||2021-01-29||Edward Tian||Produce: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|The Making of QAnon: A Crowdsourced Conspiracy||Bellingcat||2020 US Election, Pizzagate, QAnon, Trump||Text post||Fabricated Content||*chan||2021-01-07||The Q Origins Project||Research: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|QAnon Led the Storming of the US Capitol||Vice News||2020 US Election, Antifa, QAnon, 2021 US Capitol Riots, False Flag||2021-01-06||David Gilbert||Calibrate: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|Is QAnon taking over America? Not so fast||The Guardian||QAnon||2020-08-18||Adam Enders, Joseph Uscinski||Research: Defender||Article|
|QAnon Is Just the Standard Trump Train Now||New York Magazine||QAnon||2019-04-19||Brian Feldman||Calibrate: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Anti-vaccine protesters temporarily shut down vaccine site||ABC News||Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus||United States of America||2021-01-31||The Associated Press||Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor||Article|
|I Helped Uncover QAnon. Failed Prophecies Won’t Kill It||The Information||2021-01-23||Paris Martineau||Calibrate: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Prophecy Fail - What happens to a doomsday cult when the world doesn’t end?||SLATE||Armageddon||2011-05-20||Vaughan Bell||Calibrate: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Antivaxx microinfluencers are Facebook’s next big problem||WIRED||Anti-Vaccine, Healthcare, QAnon||Text post, Video||Coordinated user action, Facebook Algorithm, Facebook Groups||Australia, United Kingdom, United States of America||2021-01-29||Gian Volpicelli||Position: Aggressor, Produce: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Research: Defender, Calibrate: Defender||Article|
|Not Anti-Vaccine, Anti COVID-Vaccine: Misinformation Trends in the UK||Logically||5G, Abortion, Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, Healthcare, QAnon||Article, Text post, Video||Alternative Media, Facebook, YouTube||Facebook Algorithm, Facebook Groups, Mainstream Media, Public Figure / Celebrity||United Kingdom||2020-12-02||Joe Ondrak, Kristina Gildejeva, Edie Miller||Amplify: Aggressor, Calibrate: Aggressor, Impact: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|COVID and 5G and Vaccines, Oh My! Why so Many Conspiracies Merge Together||Logically||5G, Anti-Vaccine, Coronavirus, Healthcare, QAnon||Cultic Milieu||2020-05-07||Joe Ondrak||Position: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|Exclusive: A UK Anti-Trafficking Facebook Group Is Indoctrinating Mums and Survivors Into QAnon||Logically||QAnon||Hashtag, Inauthentic Social Media Groups / Pages||*chan, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube||Facebook Groups, Hashtag Hijacking||United Kingdom||2020-10-15||Joe Ondrak||Position: Aggressor, Publish: Aggressor, Amplify: Aggressor||Article|
|It Was Never About the Kids: How QAnon Is Hijacking Movements Against Child Trafficking and Taking the Pro-Trump #Pizzagate to the Streets||Logically||QAnon||Hashtag, Inauthentic Social Media Groups / Pages||Facebook Groups, Hashtag Hijacking||2020-08-13||Nick Backovic||Position: Aggressor, Research: Defender||Article|
|Article Title||Source||Content Context||Content Type||Disinformation Type||Dissemination Platform||Amplification Method||Geography||Article Publish Date||Article Author||Aggressor||Influence Cycle Stage||Type|
One way I’d love to improve the article archives would be to have them automatically populate reporting from key sources, so they aren’t bottlenecked by waiting for me (hello again!) to add them manually. It’s also worth noting that the article archives existed before Tactic profiles, so tags may need to be updated as the database develops.
DisinfoDB Going Forward
DisinfoDB is an evolving project that is continuously being worked on. Things may change but that’s OK – part of what we’re doing here is not waiting for a perfect finished product before making information accessible. Along with continuing to create more tactic profiles and adding to the archives, some loftier goals I have are:
Mapping Tactics to Stages of the Disinformation Cycle
Mitre ATT&CK has created matrices which place tactics within stages of a cyber attack. For example, Phishing is a tactic used to gain Initial Access to a computer, after which hackers will Execute malware using one of many tactics within the category. Prior to any of these they will have done Reconnaissance against the target and Developed Resources required to perform an attack. Knowing this is beneficial to investigations; we can track paths hackers are likely to have taken through stages of an attack and eliminate tactics based on the presence of others in the same category.
I’d love to make a DDB matrix collating Tactics under stages of the Disinformation Cycle, but this is something that would require more Tactic profiles to be completed before starting.
Mapping Tactics to Personas
DisinfoDB also tracks reporting which directly attributes groups behind influence operations, and generates Personas. Different Personas use different Tactics, and should one find themselves concerned about particular groups influencing them, they may refer to Personas to see how they are likely to do so. In this example the Mind-Hacktivist Persona is shown to have used Tactical Infodemics and Imposter Content in the past, so may do again in the future.
At the time of writing I have seen less reporting on Personas than on Tactics, and as such tracking Personas appears to be more exploratory than other content in DDB (which is built upon the great research and reporting of many giants). Valuable and accurate Persona profiles would therefore take more time to develop than Tactic profiles, and I believe expanding tracked Tactics is where we can see the value from efforts spent at the moment.
It can be a little meta mind-boggling to think about how our thoughts can be influenced by other people. It’s nice to consider one’s mind a logical, infallible fortress and that if we have an opinion it’s because we rationally reasoned it out and precisely puzzled it together. It’s scary to think the pieces may have been intentionally laid out in a fashion that drew us to a conclusion we wouldn’t have otherwise agreed with, by people who may not have our best interests at heart. It’s probably impossible to make ourselves immune to manipulation, but knowing how psychological traps are deployed may reduce the probability that we fall into them. This conclusion was arrived at based on the following:
- When we improve our resilience to parts of a disinformation campaign, disinformers need to calibrate before they can try manipulating us again.
- We know this because of research done by the US Military into influence operations ran against the 2016 US Presidential election.
- There are lots of different things we can target to make it harder for them to succeed, but the aspect that’s hardest to recalibrate are Tactics used.
- We used the Pyramid of Pain from Cybersecurity as an example to make this assumption.
- High effort inoculations are being developed to hinder disinformation Tactics, but there’s a gap for people who’d like to be informed about Tactics while more robust interventions are still in production.
- We looked at the MITRE ATT&CK framework to see how this gap has been filled in the Cybersecurity field.
- DisinfoDB provides accessible summaries of Tactics used in disinformation campaigns, and collates real-world reporting to provide practical examples.
That’s it! As an aside, do you think we should have a different name for the Pyramid of Pain when it’s talking about Disinformation? Here are some ideas I had for other things we could call it:
- Catacomb of Coercion
- Triangle of Trickery
- Edifice of Exploitation
- Isosceles of Influence
- Mausoleum of Manipulation
- Sierpiński of Subterfuge
- Reliquary of Ruses
Any sound good to you? Provide your own suggestions or just lampoon me on Twitter at @DisinfoDB.